This article explains in more detail the differences between the two in the IAS audit a final word on reduction – perhaps not quite concluded: competent observers almost generally agree that voluntary reduction contributions will not be sufficient to limit greenhouse gas concentrations or temperature increases within all acceptable limits. The ambitions of the commitments must be strengthened over time. It will be interesting to see if there will be pressure to differentiate the competences of developing and industrialized countries with respect to a periodic review process that could be incorporated into the Paris Agreement and that will strengthen commitments over time. There might be a way to make such differentiation acceptable to all parties, but it will have to wait for another position. First, it is a more nuanced and dynamic interpretation of CBDR-RC. The Paris Agreement distinguishes between “developed countries” and “developing countries” instead of Schedule I and non-Annex I countries. This allows developing countries to increase their ambitions over time, without formally “grading” Schedule I (Voigt and Ferreira, 2016). This is also reflected in the inclusion of the term “in light of national circumstances” in the Paris Agreement: if the circumstances of countries change, their common but differentiated responsibilities (Rajamani, 2016) are also added. While the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also emerged.
James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing, only promises” and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument for climate action from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  The Paris Agreement  is an agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions and was signed in 2016. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st UNFCCC Conference of parties held at Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and agreed on 12 December 2015.   Since February 2020, all 196 UNFCCC members have signed the agreement and 189 have left.  Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, Iran and Turkey are the only major emitters.
Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which set legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as penalties for non-compliance) only for industrialized countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developing – to take their share and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, the Paris Agreement provides for greater flexibility: commitments that countries should make are not included, countries can voluntarily set their emissions targets and countries will not be penalized if they do not meet their proposed targets.