In early November 2017, Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull rejected an offer by his New Zealand counterpart, Jacinda Ardern, to relocate 150 asylum seekers from Nauru and Manus Island to New Zealand, on the grounds that Australia was following a refugee relocation agreement with the United States. Australian Immigration Minister Peter Dutton also said the New Zealand offer would encourage more smugglers to travel from New Zealand to Australia. The offer coincided with Australia`s efforts to close the Manus Regional Processing Centre. Dutton also warned that New Zealand`s proposed offer could affect bilateral relations between the two countries.   The microcontinent Zealandia, most of which is not flooded today, probably separated from Antarctica 130 to 85 million years ago, and then 60 to 85 million years ago from the separate continent of Australia during the break-up of Eastern Gondwana in the chalk and early Paleogene periods. Zealandia and Australia together are among the other regions known as Oceania and Australasia. Australia, the North Island of New Zealand and the northwest of the South Island are located on the Indo-Australian Plate, the rest of the South Island on the Pacific Plate. The volume of trans-Incidental trade increased by 9% per year between the early 1980s and the end of 2007, with the 1983 free trade agreement on closer economic relations at an important turning point. In part, Britain joined the European Economic Community in the early 1970s, limiting both countries` access to their largest export markets.
Prior to 1973, neither New Zealand nor Australia had systematic control over immigration from the main Commonwealth countries (mainly the United Kingdom and Canada) and New Zealanders and Australians could therefore move freely under informal agreements between the various countries. In December 2014, following a cabinet shuffle, Peter Dutton took over the portfolio of Australia`s Minister for Immigration and Border Management.  In the same month, the Australian government amended the Migration Act, which makes it easier to cancel Australian visas for non-citizens who have spent more than twelve months in an Australian prison or if immigration authorities believe they pose a threat to the country. This stricter character test is also aimed at non-citizens who have lived in Australia for most of their lives and have family there. . . .